If you’re familiar with the popular network mapping tool,
nmap, then you’ve probably heard of its stealth mode feature. But do you really know what it does and how to use it effectively? In this blog, we’ll dive into the requirements and dependencies, use-cases, and some examples of using stealth mode with Nmap. We’ll also uncover a surprising fact about this feature and provide some key take-aways for using it effectively. Plus, we’ll give you some tips and additional resources for mastering stealth mode with Nmap.
Requirements and Dependencies
To use stealth mode with Nmap, you’ll need to have Nmap installed on your system. You can download Nmap from its official website or through a package manager like apt-get or yum. Additionally, you’ll need to have some basic knowledge of network protocols and how to use the command line.
Stealth mode, also known as “silent mode,” is a useful feature for Nmap users who want to scan a network without being detected by the target system or network. This can be useful for a variety of reasons, such as:
- Conducting security assessments or penetration tests without alerting the target system or network
- Gathering information about a network without drawing attention to yourself
- Evading firewalls or other security measures that may block or detect Nmap scans
Examples with itvraag.nl
Let’s say we want to use Nmap to scan the website itvraag.nl, but we don’t want to draw attention to ourselves or the scan. We can use stealth mode to do this by using the
-sS flag, which tells Nmap to use a SYN scan (a type of stealth scan) to gather information about the target system.
Here’s an example of using stealth mode to scan itvraag.nl:
nmap -sS itvraag.nl
This will scan the website and return information about the open ports, services running on those ports, and other details about the system.
Not 100% Stealthy
While Nmap’s stealth mode, also known as silent mode, can be effective at evading certain security measures and avoiding detection by the target system or network, it is not completely stealthy. There are certain advanced security systems that may still be able to detect Nmap scans, even in stealth mode.
One way that Nmap stealth mode can be detected is through network traffic analysis. This involves monitoring and analyzing the traffic on a network to identify unusual or suspicious activity. An Nmap stealth scan can generate unusual traffic patterns that may be detected by a network traffic analysis tool.
Another way that Nmap stealth mode can be detected is through intrusion detection systems (IDS). These systems monitor a network for any signs of unauthorized access or activity, such as an Nmap stealth scan. Some IDS systems may have specific rules or signatures set up to detect Nmap scans, even in stealth mode.
It’s important to note that while Nmap stealth mode may not be completely stealthy, it can still be useful for evading basic security measures and for gathering information without drawing too much attention to yourself. However, it’s always a good idea to be aware of the limitations of any security tool, and to use it in conjunction with other security measures to ensure the best protection for your network.
When it comes to network traffic analysis, unusual or suspicious activity related to Nmap stealth mode may include:
- A sudden increase in traffic volume: An Nmap stealth scan may generate a large amount of traffic as it sends requests to multiple ports and servers on the target system or network. This sudden increase in traffic volume may be detected as unusual or suspicious activity.
- Unusual traffic patterns: Nmap stealth scans may generate traffic patterns that are not typically seen in normal network traffic. For example, an Nmap stealth scan may send requests to multiple ports on the same server in quick succession, rather than spreading out requests to different servers over a longer period of time. This unusual traffic pattern may be detected as suspicious activity.
- Unexpected traffic sources: An Nmap stealth scan may originate from an unexpected or unknown source, such as a new device or IP address on the network. This unexpected traffic source may be detected as suspicious activity.
- Anomalous protocol usage: Nmap stealth scans may use unusual or unexpected protocols, such as SYN or ACK scans, which may be detected as anomalous activity by a network traffic analysis tool.
Decreasing Scan Speed
In some cases, decreasing the speed or frequency of an Nmap scan may help to reduce the likelihood of detection by certain security measures. This is because slower or less frequent scans may generate less traffic or activity on the network, which may be less likely to be detected as unusual or suspicious activity.
However, it’s important to note that decreasing the speed or frequency of an Nmap scan may also reduce the effectiveness of the scan. For example, a slower scan may take longer to complete and may not be able to cover as much ground as a faster scan. Additionally, some security measures may be more sensitive to slower scans, as they may have more time to detect and respond to the activity.
Overall, it’s a balance between the effectiveness and stealthiness of an Nmap scan. Decreasing the speed or frequency of a scan may help to reduce the likelihood of detection, but it may also reduce the effectiveness of the scan. It’s important to consider the specific goals and requirements of the scan when deciding on the speed and frequency of the scan.
There are a few different ways to slow down an Nmap scan using the command line:
- Use the
Tflag followed by a number between 0 and 5 to adjust the timing template of the scan. A lower number will result in a slower scan, while a higher number will result in a faster scan. For example,
T0will result in a very slow scan, while
T5will result in a very fast scan.
- Use the
-min-rtt-timeoutflags to adjust the response time threshold for the scan. A higher response time threshold will result in a slower scan, as Nmap will wait longer for responses from the target system or network.
- Use the
-max-hostgroupflags to adjust the number of hosts that are scanned in parallel. A lower number will result in a slower scan, as Nmap will scan fewer hosts at a time.
- Use the
-max-rateflag followed by a number to limit the maximum number of packets per second that are sent during the scan. A lower number will result in a slower scan.
It’s important to note that slowing down an Nmap scan may also reduce the effectiveness of the scan, as it may take longer to complete and may not be able to cover as much ground as a faster scan. It’s important to consider the specific goals and requirements of the scan when deciding on the speed and frequency of the scan.
Here is a rough estimate of the time it may take to complete an Nmap scan using different
T0: Very slow scan, may take several hours to complete
T1: Slow scan, may take several minutes to an hour to complete
T2: Moderate scan, may take several seconds to a few minutes to complete
T3: Normal scan, may take several seconds to a minute to complete
T4: Fast scan, may take several seconds to complete
T5: Very fast scan, may take a few seconds to complete
It’s important to note that these estimates are rough and may vary based on the specific circumstances of the scan. It’s always a good idea to test and experiment with different
-T flags to find the right balance between speed and effectiveness for your specific needs.
- Stealth mode, or silent mode, can be used with Nmap to scan a network or system without being detected by the target
- It’s useful for conducting security assessments or penetration tests, gathering information, and evading certain security measures
- It’s not completely stealthy, and advanced security systems may still be able to detect Nmap scans in stealth mode
Tips for Using Stealth Mode
Here are some tips for using stealth mode effectively with Nmap:
- Use the
sSflag for a SYN scan, which is a type of stealth scan
- Use the
Pnflag to tell Nmap to treat all hosts as online, even if they don’t respond to ping requests
- Use the
T4flag to increase the speed of the scan
- Use the
vflag for verbose output, which can provide more detailed information about the scan
- Use the
-min-rtt-timeoutflags to adjust the response time threshold for the scan
- Nmap documentation and man pages: https://nmap.org/docs/
- Nmap tutorial: https://nmap.org/book/man-tutorial.html
- Nmap usage examples: https://nmap.org/book/man-usage.html
Try using stealth mode with Nmap to scan a website or network of your choice. Experiment with different flags and options to see how it affects the output of the scan.